From Farm to Fork — How Safe Is Our Food?
The very food that we need to help us grow and live, could also cause us to become ill and die. Food — we cannot live without it, but it can pose great danger. Let’s look at cold hard reality. Our food supply, our food storage systems and our cooking and eating habits may be responsible for a great deal of misery. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that contaminated food sickens approximately 76 million Americans, leading to some 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths in the U.S. each year.
Food safety is particularly important to anyone with a compromised immune system because we just don’t have the ability to fight infections whether they are bacterial or viral. Certainly people who have had organ transplants fall into that category. Transplant recipients must be especially careful.
As I started to research this posting the first question that popped into my mind was, “Which foods are most likely to make me sick. I found this list of the top ten from the Center for Science in the Public Interest as reprinted in the Fiscal Times
Lettuce and spinach may be on the top of most nutritionists’ lists, but they’re also among the foods most linked to outbreaks of illness. The contaminations often starts at the farm through contact with wild animals or manure.
*Source: The Center for Science in the Public Interest
The risk for salmonella makes eggs the second-most popular source of food-based illnesses. Consumers can protect themselves by fully cooking all eggs and eating or storing eggs promptly after cooking.
Raw or undercooked oysters can breed vibrio bacteria, which can cause mild food poisoning in healthy individuals and life-threatening illness among those with a weakened immune system. Best practices in preparing oysters is to discard any open shells before cooking, and any shells that didn’t open while cooking.
Baked potatoes become breeding grounds for botulism when they’re wrapped in foil and left out to cool too long. Unwrap potatoes after baking them, and store them in a cool, dark place before cooking.
Sticking with pasteurized cheese greatly reduces the risk of bacteria, but some soft cheeses—even those made with pasteurized cheese—are vulnerable to contamination during the cheese-making process.
7) Ice Cream
Everyone may scream for this summer treat, but when it’s made with undercooked eggs the cold stuff can become dangerous. Even store-bought ice cream can breed bacteria when it’s put back in the freezer after unfreezing.
Salmonella can contaminate tomatoes on the farm via the roots, flowers or cracks in the skin. If an infected tomato is eaten raw, it has a high risk of infecting the person who consumers it.
The humid settings ideal for cultivating sprouts are also model conditions for salmonella, listeria and E. Coli. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that children, the elderly, pregnant women, and those with a weakened immune systems should avoid eating sprouts all together.
Strawberries, blackberries, and blueberries have been linked to a number of food-borne illness outbreaks in recent year. Last summer, a hepatitis A outbreak the sickened 150 people was traced back to frozen organic berries.
The Importance of Temperature
Inadequate food temperature control is the most common factor contributing to food borne illness. Disease causing bacteria grow particularly well in foods high in protein such as meats, poultry, seafood, eggs, dairy products, cooked vegetables such as beans, and cooked cereal grains such as rice. Because of the high potential for rapid bacterial growth in these foods they are known as “potentially hazardous foods.”
Temperature Danger Zone
The temperature range at which bacteria grow best in potentially hazardous foods is between 41F. and 140F. The goal of all temperature controls is to either keep foods entirely out of this “danger zone” or to pass foods through this “danger zone” as quickly as possible.
So now you know which foods may pose the greatest threat to your health, but there are other factors that should concern us as well. For example:
America’s food safety system has not been fundamentally modernized in more than 100 years.
Twenty states and D.C. did not meet or exceed the national average rate for being able to identify the pathogens responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks in their states.
Ensuring the public can quickly and safely receive medications during a major health emergency is one of the most serious challenges facing public health officials. Sixteen states have purchased less than half of their share of federally-subsidized antivirals to use during a pandemic flu outbreak.
The main culprits are familiar. They include:
- Salmonella, bacteria that cause over 1.5 million illnesses per year. These commonly reside in uncooked poultry and eggs. Recent outbreaks have been linked to peanut butter, alfalfa sprouts and tomatoes.
- E. coli 0157:H7, a dangerous bacterial strain that can cause kidney failure, turns up disproportionately in ground beef. Lately it’s been linked to spinach and pre-made cookie dough. (For a complete list, see the full report, which details also the geographical distribution of food-borne illnesses in the U.S.) You can read and learn more here http://tinyurl.com/k64har2
There are three types of hazards in a food manufacturing process: physical, chemical and biological. Foreign objects are the most obvious evidence of a contaminated product and are therefore most likely to be reported by production or by consumer complaints. However, they are also less likely than chemical or biological contaminants to affect large numbers of people.
Attributing illness to foods is a challenge for several reasons. There are thousands of different foods, and we eat many varieties prepared in different ways, even in a single meal. For the vast majority of foodborne illnesses, we simply don’t know which food is responsible for an illness.
One way to develop a fairly accurate estimate is to use data collected during investigations of a food illness outbreak. These investigations provide direct links between foodborne illnesses and which foods are responsible for them.
According to the National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases, there are more than 250 known foodborne diseases. They can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Natural and manufactured chemicals in food products also can make people sick. Some diseases are caused by toxins or poisons from the disease-causing microbe or germ, others are caused by your body’s reaction to the germ.
Types of Foodborne Diseases as supplied by the National Institutes of Health (click on each one for details including symptoms and treatment or click this link for the NIH website http://www.niaid.nih.gov/)
Botulism, Campylobacteriosis, E. coli, Hepatitis A, Norovirus Infection, Salmonellosis, Shigellosis, Prevention
So how do you avoid these unpronounceable diseases? Besides the information provided on the links to each disease, you might also want to make note of the following helpful suggestions
No matter how busy you are, from top to bottom, a clean kitchen is a main line of defense for your family and the prevention of food poisoning. You simply must eliminate the breeding grounds for dangerous bacteria.
- Wash your hands often – front and back, between fingers, under fingernails – in warm soapy water for at least 20 seconds (or two choruses of “Happy Birthday”) before and after every step in preparing or eating foods. That includes your kitchen helpers, such as children.
- Clean all work surfaces often to remove food particles and spills. Use hot, soapy water. Keep nonfood items – mail, newspapers, purses – off counters and away from food and utensils. Wash the counter carefully before and after food preparation.
- Wash dishes and cookware in the dishwasher or in hot, soapy water, and always rinse them well. Remember that chipped plates and china can collect bacteria.
- Change towels and dishcloths often and wash them in the hot cycle of your washing machine. Allow them to dry out between each use. If they are damp, they’re the perfect breeding ground for bacteria.
- Throw out dirty sponges or sterilize them by rinsing the sponge and microwaving it for about two minutes while still wet. Be careful, the sponge will be hot.
Pay close attention to the refrigerator and the freezer – shelves, sides and door – where foods are stored. Pack perishables in coolers while you clean or defrost your refrigerator or freezer.
Splatters inside your microwave can also collect bacteria, so keep it clean.
We’ve talked a lot about diseases and illnesses but our health is also subject to physical hazards. You can view a University of Nebraska Slide show on the subject here: http://tinyurl.com/k6k4qow
What is a physical hazard?
We’ve all heard the stories about Rocks, insects and other things showing up in soda and beer cans. While those instances are rare, they still happen. Any extraneous object or foreign matter in food which may cause illness or injury to a person consuming the product is a physical hazard. These objects include bone or bone chips, metal flakes or fragments, injection needles, BB’s or shotgun pellets, pieces of product packaging, stones, glass or wood fragments, insects, personal items, or any other foreign matter not normally found in food.
The 8 most common food categories implicated in reported foreign object complaints are bakery products, soft drinks, vegetables, infant’s foods, fruits, cereals, fishery products and chocolate and cocoa products. Below you will find a list of hazards, their effect and the treatment. You can find more detailed information by clicking on this link http://tinyurl.com/mbktawq
These materials have been found in food and can cause severe trauma, bleeding, cuts and even death. In many cases surgery is required to correct the damage caused by; Glass, wood, stones, bullets, BBs, needles, jewelry, metal, .Insects and other contaminated material, building materials, bone, plastic and personal effects
As with any topic it is sometimes difficult to separate fact from fiction. There are so many rumors, old Wives tales and myths people often think they are doing the right thing when in fact they may be making matters worse. We can’t dispel all the rumors, but we can address a few.
Food Safety Myths Exposed
We all do our best to serve our families food that’s safe and healthy, but some common myths about food safety might surprise you.
MYTH: Food poisoning isn’t that big of a deal. I just have to tough it out for a day or two and then it’s over.
FACT: Many people don’t know it, but some foodborne illnesses can actually lead to long-term health conditions, and 5,000 Americans a year die from foodborne illness. Get the FACTs on long-term effects of food poisoning.
MYTH: It’s OK to thaw meat on the counter. Since it starts out frozen, bacteria isn’t really a problem.
FACT: Actually, bacteria grow surprisingly rapidly at room temperatures, so the counter is never a place you should thaw foods. Instead, thaw foods the right way.
MYTH When cleaning my kitchen, the more bleach I use, the better. More bleach kills more bacteria, so it’s safer for my family.
FACT: There is actually no advantage to using more bleach than needed. To clean kitchen surfaces effectively, use just one teaspoon of liquid, unscented bleach to one quart of water.
MYTH I don’t need to wash fruits or vegetables if I’m going to peel them.
FACT: Because it’s easy to transfer bacteria from the peel or rind you’re cutting to the inside of your fruits and veggies, it’simportant to wash all produce, even if you plan to peel it.
FACT: Actually, rinsing meat, poultry, or seafood with water can increase your chance of food poisoning by splashing juices (and any bacteria they might contain) onto your sink and counters. The best way to cook meat, poultry, or seafood safely is tomake sure you cook it to the right temperature.
MYTH: The only reason to let food sit after it’s been microwaved is to make sure you don’t burn yourself on food that’s too hot.
FACT: In FACT, letting microwaved food sit for a few minutes (“standing time”) helps your food cook more completely by allowing colder areas of food time to absorb heat from hotter areas of food.
MYTH: Leftovers are safe to eat until they smell bad.
FACT: The kinds of bacteria that cause food poisoning do not affect the look, smell, or taste of food. To be safe, use our Safe Storage Times chart to make sure you know the right time to throw food out.
MYTH: Once food has been cooked, all the bacteria have been killed, so I don’t need to worry once it’s “done.”
FACT: Actually, the possibility of bacterial growth actually increases after cooking, because the drop in temperature allows bacteria to thrive. This is why keeping cooked food warmed to the right temperature is critical for food safety.
MYTH: Marinades are acidic, which kills bacteria—so it’s OK to marinate foods on the counter.
FACT: Even in the presence of acidic marinade, bacteria can grow very rapidly at room temperatures. To marinate foods safely, it’s important to marinate them in the refrigerator.
MYTH: If I really want my produce to be safe, I should wash fruits and veggies with soap or detergent before I use them.
FACT: In FACT, it’s best not to use soaps or detergents on produce, since these products can linger on foods and are not safe for consumption. Using clean running water is actually the
FACT: Just a lick can make you sick!
No one of any age should eat raw cookie dough or cake batter because it could contain germs that cause illness. Whether it’s pre-packaged or homemade, the heat from baking is required to kill germs that might be in the raw ingredients. The finished, baked, product is far safer – and tastes even better! So don’t do it! And remember, kids who eat raw cookie dough and cake batter are at greater risk of getting food poisoning than most adults are.
MYTH: When kids cook it is usually “heat and eat” snacks and foods in the microwave. They don’t have to worry about food safety – the microwaves kill the germs!
FACT: Microwaves aren’t magic!
It’s the heat the microwaves generate that kills the germs! Food cooked in a microwave needs to be heated to a safe internal temperature. Microwaves often heat food unevenly, leaving cold spots in food where germs can survive. Kids can use microwaves properly by carefully following package instructions. Even simple “heat and eat” snacks come with instructions that need to be followed to ensure a safe product. Use a food thermometer if the instructions tell you to!
MYTH: When kids wash their hands, just putting their hands under running water is enough to get the germs off.
FACT: Rubbing hands with water and soap is the best way to go!
Water is just part of what you need for clean hands! Washing hands properly is a great way to reduce the risk of food poisoning. Here’s how: Wet your hands with clean, running water and apply soap. Rub them together to make a lather and scrub them well; be sure to scrub the backs of hands, between fingers, and under nails. Continue rubbing for at least 20 seconds. Sing the “Happy Birthday” song twice to time yourself! Rinse hands well under running water. Dry your hands using a clean towel, paper towel, or an air dryer.
MYTH: My kids only eat pre-packaged fruits and veggies for snacks because those snacks don’t need to be washed before they eat them.
FACT: Read your way to food safety!
Giving your kids healthy snacks is a big plus for them! But just because produce is wrapped, it doesn’t always mean it’s ready to eat as is. Read the label of your product to make sure it is says: “ready-to-eat,” “washed,” or “triple washed.” If it does, you’re good to go! If it doesn’t, wash your hands and then rinse the fruits or vegetables under running tap water. Scrub firm items, such as melons and cucumbers, with a clean produce brush. Dry with a clean cloth towel or paper towel to further reduce germs that may be present.
While federal, state and local agencies provide a valuable service with their contributions to our food safety, the primary responsibility is yours. Too many of us become too careless with our food preparation and storage procedures and each of us needs to pay far more attention to the cleanliness of the areas in which we prepare food and to the cleanliness of the food itself.
Bob Aronson of Bob’s Newheart is a 2007 heart transplant recipient, the founder of Facebook’s over 4,000 member Organ Transplant Initiative (OTI) and the author of most of these donation/transplantation blogs. You may comment in the space provided or email your thoughts to me at email@example.com. And – please spread the word about the immediate need for more organ donors. There is nothing you can do that is of greater importance. If you convince one person to be an organ and tissue donor you may save or positively affect over 60 lives. Some of those lives may be people you know and love. You can register to be a donor at http://www.donatelife.net. It only takes a few minutes.